Francisco M. Salzano obtained his PhD in Genetics at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1955. After post-doctoral studies at the University of Michigan, he developed his professional career at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. His genetic and evolutionary investigations involved a large number of organisms, with emphasis on humans, particularly Native Americans. He was the author and co-author of 1,511 publications, including 21 books. He was a member of the Brazilian, American, Chilean, Latin American, and Third World Academies of Sciences. Mara H. Hutz obtained her PhD in Genetics and Molecular Biology at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1981. She completed postdoctoral studies at the Division of Pediatric Genetics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and is currently Full Professor of Genetics at the University of Rio Grande do Sul. Previously President of the Brazilian Society of Genetics, she has published 260 papers. Maria Cátira Bortolini obtained her MSc and PhD in Genetics and Molecular Biology at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1991 and 1996, respectively. Through a postdoctoral fellowship from the Wellcome Trust, she continued her studies at University College London. At present, she is Full Professor of Genetics at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. She published 120 papers, and the book Evolution and Genetics of Latin American Populations (2002).