Adamantios Sampson studied at the University of Athens at the Department of History and Archaeology of the Faculty of Philosophy. From the same university he received his PhD titled 'The Neolithic and the Early Helladic I in Euboea' in 1981. He then completed post-doctoral studies on in environmental archaeology in 1983 and 1984 at the Sheffield University while participating in various projects in England and Ireland. In 1985, he studied Neolithic cities of the Middle East in Jordan. Adamantios is a specialist in prehistoric archaeology and cave research. He is a member of several scientific societies and unions.
In addition to his excavation activities, since 1999 Adamantios has worked as full professor in the Department of Mediterranean Studies at the University of the Aegean, and teaches courses with the titles 'Prehistoric Archeology of the Mediterranean', 'Prehistory of the Near East' and 'Archeology of Pre-Columbian America and Asia'. He is considered one of the experts in the study of the Mesolithic and Neolithic period, especially in the Aegean islands. He has also worked as Director in the Department of Speleology since 1991, and from 1995 as director of the Ephorate of Cyclades. For eight years between 1996 and 2003 he conducted excavations at two early Neolithic sites in Jordan.
His excavation work includes excavations in caves but also in open prehistoric sites, both in the mainland and in the Aegean. He was the director of excavations at various prehistoric sites in Euboea (Chalkida, Eretria, Kymi, Aliveri, and Kerinthos), Boeotia, Dodecanese (Rhodes, Telos, Leros, Chalki), Cyclades (Mykonos, Kythnos, Naxos) and Peloponnese. Since 1994, Adamantios has also carried out excavations at the prehistoric 'Sarakenos Cave' of Boeotia, while carrying out archaeological and ethno-archaeological surveys in deserted islets of the Southern Aegean.
He has published 44 books and more than 160 papers.