Sämi Ludwig is a Professeur des Universités at the University of Upper Alsace Mulhouse, France. He received his education at the University of Berne, Switzerland, and has published in REAL, AmerikaStudien, Mosaic, the Cambridge Companion to Toni Morrison, The African American Review, and The Journal for Asian American Studies. In his PhD thesis on intercultural communication in the work of Maxine Hong Kingston and Ishmael Reed, he outlined a theory of the metaphorical tracing of the intention constructions of the other. His second book, titled Cognitive Realism: The Pragmatist Paradigm in American Literary Realism, focuses on the convergences of American Realism and pragmatist theory, and was published in 2002. In addition to intercultural issues and questions of cognitive and pragmatist approaches to literature, he is also interested in the big picture of literary history and colonial American culture, and occasionally writes about poetry.